Unit tests (Ceedling)

The software of the R5 uses unit tests. Unit tests make sure that the code works as expected. Unit tests are short and focused on a specific software module, e.g., testing one translation unit (.c file). They state how the software ought to behave and tests if it does. These tests are run on the local developer machine instead of a UltraZohm. Unit tests do not test the complete system and verified that it works (this would be system & integration test) but makes sure that individual modules work, i.e., all the small things.


Using Ceedling and unit tests for the UltraZohm requires that usage of VS Code Remote Container. The remote container handles the installation of all required tools and paths such that no setup is required!

We use the four-phase test pattern 1 (p. 25):

  • Setup: Establish the preconditions on the test

  • Exercise: Do something to the system

  • Verify: Check the expected outcome

  • Cleanup: Return the system under test to its initial state

We use the Ceedling test framework. Ceedling simplifies the usage of Unity (the actual testing framework) and Cmock (used for generating mocks). The unit tests are located in vitis/software/Baremetal/. The folder src holds the software that is tested and used when programming the UltraZohm with Vitis. The other folders hold auxiliary files for the test suite. The file project.yml holds the configuration for Ceedling.

└── vitis/
    └── software/
        ├── Baremetal/
        |    ├── build
        |    ├── src
        |    ├── support
        |    ├── test
        |    └── project.yml
        ├── FreeRTOS
        └── FSBL
More information:


The following section assumes the usage of VS Code Remote Container and the successful completion of How to create a IP-core driver. It is meant as a reference for specific situation that arise when using Ceedling.

Run Tests from CLI

In a terminal with the path ultrazohm_sw/vitis/software/Baremetal:

ceedling test:all

Create a new module

In a terminal with the path ultrazohm_sw/vitis/software/Baremetal:

ceedling module:create[path/name]

With path being the path in which the new module should be created relative to Baremetal/src directory and name the name of the module. Example:

ceedling module:create[IP_Cores/uz_myIP/uz_myIP]

Creates the files uz_myIP.c and uz_myIP.h in ultrazohm_sw/vitis/software/Baremetal/src/IP_Cores/uz_myIP/ and test_uz_myIP.c in ultrazohm_sw/vitis/software/Baremetal/test/IP_Cores/uz_myIP/. Note that this also works if some of these files already exist.

Example test

Line 1-3 of Include section of test are automatically generated by Ceedling/Unity. Line 4 is added manually. The prefix mock_ tells Ceedling to automatically generate mocked versions of the functions defined in uz_AXI.h. These mocked versions can be called with the prefix _Expect and _ExpectAndReturn to state that these functions are expected to be called from the function under test with the specified arguments and return the defined value if called with these arguments. See Cmock docs for more information.

Listing 83 Include section of test
1#include "unity.h"
2#include <stdint.h>
3#include "uz_axiTestIP2_hw.h"
4#include "mock_uz_AXI.h"
5#define base_address 0x0000000FU

Simple test with expected call uses the automatically generated mock function uz_axi_write_int32_Expect to indicate that in this test, the function uz_axiTestIP2_hw_write_A_int32 has to call uz_axi_write_int32 with the specified arguments. If the function is not called or other arguments are passed to uz_axi_write_int32 from uz_axiTestIP2_hw_write_A_int32 the test will fail. Note that the function uz_axi_write_int32 expects a call with the sum of base address and offset for the specific axi register, i.e., uz_axiTestIP2_hw_write_A_int32 has to add the right offset.

Listing 84 Simple test with expected call
1void test_uz_axiTestIP2_hw_write_to_A_int32(void)
3    int32_t a=10;
4    uz_axi_write_int32_Expect(base_address+A_int32_Data_uz_axi_testIP, a);
5    uz_axiTestIP2_hw_write_A_int32(base_address,a);

Test with readback and ASSERT_EQUAL shows a test that involves a return value.

Listing 85 Test with readback and ASSERT_EQUAL
1void test_uz_axiTestIP2_hw_read_C_int32(void)
3    int32_t a=20;
4    int32_t b=-10;
5    uz_axi_read_int32_ExpectAndReturn(base_address+C_int32_Data_uz_axi_testIP,a*b);
6    int32_t c=uz_axiTestIP2_hw_read_C_int32(base_address);


These tests rely on the usage of the HAL functions and AXI read/write functions.


The unit test for IP-core drivers only tests if the software works as intended. Dedicated testing for the actual hardware of the IP-core is assumed here! The example above tests if the software driver reads and writes the correct registers, but this unit test does not test the function of the IP-core (the multiplication).

Testing assertions

Assertions are used in the UltraZohm project to protect from programming errors such as calling functions with arguments that are out of range or passing NULL pointers.

  • Include the test macros for the assertions in the test file (#include "test_assert_with_exception.h")

  • Use the test macro TEST_ASSERT_FAIL_ASSERT to test if an assert fails.

  • Use the test macro TEST_ASSERT_PASS_ASSERT to test if an assert passes.

  • Both function calls should cause an assert fo fail due to calling it with a NULL pointer and a pointer to an uninitialized instance (is_ready is false in the second call). Example:

TEST_ASSERT_FAIL_ASSERT(uz_axiTestIP2_multiply(NULL, a,b));
uz_axiTestIP2 test_instance2={
uz_axiTestIP2* testptr=&test_instance2;
TEST_ASSERT_FAIL_ASSERT(uz_axiTestIP2_multiply(testptr, a,b));

Implementation details

The following approach is used to test if assertions are triggered:

#include "CException.h"
#define uz_assert(condition) if (!(condition)) Throw(0)

This means a failing assertion throws an exception instead of triggering a real assertion. The test macros TEST_ASSERT_FAIL_ASSERT and TEST_ASSERT_PASS_ASSERT catch the thrown exception and print an error message if the test fails. If the code is used in production (i.e., on the UltraZohm), the define TEST is not present, therefore #define uz_assert(condition) if (!(condition)) Throw(0) is not used in the code but the actual assert define (see uz_HAL.h).

Multiple source files with common header

To test a software module with one interface header and multiple c-files, i.e.:

Listing 86 my_function.h
void do_something_A(void);
void do_something_B(void);
Listing 87 my_function_part_A.c
#include my_function.h
void do_something_A(void){
// do something A
Listing 88 my_function_part_B.c
#include my_function.h
void do_something_B(void){
// do something B

Including my_function.h in the test_my_function.c file will throw a Ceedling error the functions from my_function_part_A.c are used. This happens because Ceedling will assume that the .c file name matches the name of the header (my_function.c in this case). To fix this, include the following macro at the top of test_my_function.c.


This way you can include as many .c as needed. See:

Passing and testing with structs or typedef as function arguments

To test a software module, the functions that are called by the module under test have to be mocked. This is done by using CMock, i.e., including the header of the functions that are called with the prefix mock_. In the tests, it has to be specified with which arguments the function is called using _Expect (and others). If the mocked function is expected to be called with a struct (or a typedefed struct) as one of its arguments, Ceedling does compare the memory per byte. Therefore, the error message of the failing test can not specify which member of the struct did not match the expected values. Furthermore, this can fail due to padding. If the test fails, either due to padding or due to passing wrong arguments, the following error message is shown by Ceedling:

At line (11): "Memory Mismatch. Byte 3 Expected 0x60F Was 0x00. Function my_function Argument first_argument. Function called with unexpected argument value."

This indicates that the byte-based comparison of the memory failed, but deriving information about the error is non-obvious as it is not clear if one of the members is used with a wrong value or if a padding-issue is present. Thus, it is required to test on a per member basis of the struct instead.


Suppose that a struct my_struct is defined in my_software_module.h and my_function has a variable of type my_struct as an argument.

Listing 89 Example of my_software_module.h
1#pragma once
2#include <stdint.h>
4struct my_struct{
5   int8_t member_one; // Purposefully trigger the padding problem
6   int32_t member_two;
9void my_function(struct my_struct);

To add a test for the custom struct that is defined in my_software_module.h, the following has to be added to uz_struct_helper.h in vitis/software/Baremetal/test/helper.

  1. Include my_software_module.h in uz_struct_helper.h and add a define for the , like so:

Listing 90 uz_struct_helper.h
 1#pragma once
 2#include "unity.h"
 4// List of header files that define public structs / typedefs that are passed into functions
 5#include "uz_fixedpoint.h"
 6#include "my_software_module.h"
 8// List of defines that map the function declarations to a type / struct name
 9// Has to match exactly (case sensitive) the name of the struct (including struct_) or the typedef (without struct_ or typedef, just the name)
10#define UNITY_TEST_ASSERT_EQUAL_struct_uz_fixedpoint_definition_t(expected, actual, line, message) AssertEqual_uz_fixedpoint_definition_t(expected, actual, line)
11#define UNITY_TEST_ASSERT_EQUAL_struct_my_struct(expected, actual, line, message) AssertEqual_my_struct(expected, actual, line)
  1. Add the function AssertEqual_my_struct to uz_struct_helper.c:

Listing 91 uz_struct_helper.c
1#include "uz_struct_helper.h"
3// The define "UNITY_UINT" comes from unity (https://github.com/ThrowTheSwitch/Unity/blob/master/src/unity_internals.h)
4// Use for the "line" argument of the AssertEqual function to prevent warnings and issues regarding the size of int (32, 64 bit...)
5void AssertEqual_my_struct(struct my_struct expected, struct my_struct actual, UNITY_UINT line) {
6  UNITY_TEST_ASSERT_EQUAL_INT8(expected.member_one, actual.member_one, line, "my_struct .member_one comparison failed");
7  UNITY_TEST_ASSERT_EQUAL_INT32(expected.member_two, actual.member_two, line, "my_struct .member_two comparison failed");
  1. In the test file test_uz_my_software_module.c, include the helper file with #include "uz_struct_helper.h"

With these steps, Ceedling automatically uses the function AssertEqual_my_struct inside of the unit tests, e.g., inside of the mocks. Furthermore, the user can use the define UNITY_TEST_ASSERT_EQUAL_struct_my_struct in the tests to test for equality.

Example of the resulting informative error message:

  Test: test_uz_dq_transformation_hw_set_thetaOffset
  At line (30): "Expected 3 Was 4. Function uz_fixedpoint_axi_write Argument fixedpoint_definition. Fixed point definition .integer_bits comparison failed"


The file #include "uz_struct_helper.h" has to be included in all tests that call or mock functions of the custom struct / typedef!

More information:


As an simplified rule, padding (might) occur if not all members of a struct have the same type (more precise, if the type of the members have a different size - see sizeof). It is crucial to note that the machines that run the tests are typically a 64-bit platform while the ARM R5 of the UltraZohm is a 32-bit platform. Therefore, padding may or may not differ between the build targets (developer machine / UltraZohm). Thus, the unit tests have to be robust against padding, alignment, and packing.

More information regarding padding and alignment:

Configuration details

The following settings are present in the Ceedling project.yml. The relevant lines are 14 to 17, which instruct CMock to add #include "uz_struct_helper.h" to the mocks that it generates and specifies the path to the included file.

 2  :mock_prefix: mock_
 3  :when_no_prototypes: :warn
 4  :enforce_strict_ordering: TRUE
 5  :plugins:
 6    - :ignore
 7    - :callback
 8  :treat_as:
 9    uint8:    HEX8
10    uint16:   HEX16
11    uint32:   UINT32
12    int8:     INT8
13    bool:     UINT8
14  :includes:
15    - "uz_struct_helper.h"
16  :unity_helper_path:
17    - "test/helper/uz_struct_helper.h"


Internally, Ceedling/CMock/Unity does the following (see #180):

  • Ceedling checks the arguments of the functions that are mocked

  • Inside of the mock, depending on the type of the arguments, the UNITY_TEST_ASSERT defines are called inside of the mock

  • This matching of argument type & UNITY_TEST_ASSERT is done by comparing names

  • Inside of the mock, the define is inserted, which in turn is just an alias for the real function that does the comparison

  • For build-in types, this calls the unity functions (see https://github.com/ThrowTheSwitch/Unity/blob/master/src/unity.c, line 707 is called for testing HEX32 on equality)

  • For costume types, it works exactly the same, just that the test function that is “behind” the define has to be user supplied

  • The insertion can be seen in the following snippet, which is auto-generated by Ceedling (mock_uz_fixedpoint.c) - see line 35

  • Thus, the helper.h has to declare the test function and provide a define that matches the type name of the arguments and an actual implementation (in helper.c) to do the comparison on a per-member basis



Test-Driven Development for Embedded C, James W. Grenning, 2011