# Digital Inverter Rev03#

## Changes from Rev02 to Rev03#

• changed gate resistors from 10Ohm to 47Ohm

• unused pads from the 2.5V reference voltage source have been removed

## Changes from Rev03 to Rev03 production#

• programmable EEPROM for identifying Inverter Cards

• all components have been reviewed regarding their compatibility with JLCPCB parts

## Absolute maximum ratings#

Warning

• Current up to $$I_{peak}=\pm33.94\ A$$ or $$I_{rms}=\pm24\ A$$

• Voltage up to $$V_{peak}=48\ V$$ or $$V_{rms}=33.94\ V$$

• Operating temperature of the MOSFET $$T_{j,max}=175°C$$

Note

• Current measurement up to $$I_{peak,meas}=\pm35\ A$$

• Voltage measurement up to $$V_{peak,meas}= 60\ V$$

• Temperature measurement up to $$T_{meas}=105°C$$

• Temperature measurement is not built into the MOSFET. Therefore the heat of the PCB close to the semiconductors is measured. The measured temperature will always be significantly lower than the max operating temperature of the semiconductors.

• DC-link capacitance $$C_{DC} = 570\mu F$$

• OPC trigger point $$I_{OCP}=\pm29.85\ A$$

• Cutoff frequency for voltage measurement $$f_g = 2170\ Hz$$

• Operation up to a PWM frequency of $$f_{PWM} = 100\ kHz$$ has been verified

## Pinout#

Table 74 Defined pin mapping uz_d_inverter#

Net Name

Signal Description

Signal Type

DIG_IO_00

PWM H1#

Gate H1

PWM/Direct

Input

DIG_IO_01

PWM L1#

Gate L1

PWM/Direct

Input

DIG_IO_02

PWM H2#

Gate H2

PWM/Direct

Input

DIG_IO_03

PWM L2#

Gate L2

PWM/Direct

Input

DIG_IO_04

PWM H3#

Gate H3

PWM/Direct

Input

DIG_IO_05

PWM L3#

Gate L3

PWM/Direct

Input

DIG_IO_06

unused

DIG_IO_07

H1 Temp

Temperature feedback H1

PWM

Output

DIG_IO_08

unused

DIG_IO_09

L1 Temp

Temperature feedback L1

PWM

Output

DIG_IO_10

unused

DIG_IO_11

OC P1

Over current indicator for phase A

Level, low active

Output

DIG_IO_12

unused

DIG_IO_13

OT L1

Over temperature indicator L1

Level, low active

Output

DIG_IO_14

PWM EN

Enable Gate signals

Level, high active

Input

DIG_IO_15

OC P2

Over current indicator for phase B

Level, low active

Output

DIG_IO_16

unused

DIG_IO_17

OT H1

Fault indicator H1

Level, low active

Output

DIG_IO_18

H3 Temp

Temperature feedback H3

PWM

Output

DIG_IO_19

H2 Temp

Temperature feedback H2

PWM

Output

DIG_IO_20

L3 Temp

Temperature feedback L3

PWM

Output

DIG_IO_21

L2 Temp

Temperature feedback L2

PWM

Output

DIG_IO_22

unused

DIG_IO_23

OC P3

Over current indicator for phase C

Level, low active

Output

DIG_IO_24

OT L3

Over temperature indicator L3

Level, low active

Output

DIG_IO_25

OT L2

Over temperature indicator L2

Level, low active

Output

DIG_IO_26

unused

DIG_IO_27

OC DC

Level, low active

Output

DIG_IO_28

OT H3

Over temperature indicator H3

Level, low active

Output

DIG_IO_29

OT H2

Over temperature indicator H2

Level, low active

Output

## Compatibility#

This digital adapter inverter board is directly compatible with the Inverter Adapter IP-Core. It can be used in any of the D1-D4 digital adapter card slots in the UltraZohm, provided the correct CPLD is flashed. The card is directly compatible with the Analog LTC2311-16 Rev05 and Rev06, Analog LTC2311-16 3v01 and Analog LTC2311-16 2vXX cards.

## Switching behavior#

The figure below shows the general switching behaviour of the inverter with a PMSM as a load is shown. The plots were taken during routine operation with the PMSM running with at $$i_q = 5\ A$$. The PWM frequency was $$20\ kHz$$ with a deadtime of $$150\ ns$$. The gate resistance has been tuned to such a degree, that there is practically no overshoot and only a minimal degree of oscillation in the drain source voltages. Although there is room for further optimization, the resulting switching behaviour is sufficiently robust.

## CPLD#

Make sure that the correct CPLD is flashed in the corresponding digital adapter slot. For this adapter card the uz_d_3ph_inverter CPLD needs to be flashed. Download this CPLD from the UltraZohm CPLD Repository. Follow this guide on how to flash the correct CPLD on the UltraZohm.

## Software implementation#

This adapter card interacts with the user via the highly sophisticated Inverter Adapter IP-Core and its associated driver. Follow this guide to integrate the IP-Core into the FPGA and to set up the software driver. While following this guide, be sure to adjust the linear interpolation parameters for the inverter_adapter_config. For this inverter card they should be:

Listing 40 linear interpolation parameters for config struct#
.linear_interpolation_params = {-289.01f, 218.72f}


Set the deadtime in the uz_interlockDeadtime2L_staticAllocator.c file to an appropriate value. A safe value with a considerable safety margin is 200ns. No matter what, the deadtime should not be lower than 150ns.

Listing 41 set the deadtime in the uz_interlockDeadtime2L_staticAllocator.c file. Shown is an example for the D1 slot.#
static uz_interlockDeadtime2L interlock_slotD1_pin_0_to_5 = {
.clock_frequency_MHz = 100,
.inverse_bottom_switch = false };


To enable or disable the PWM_EN for normal operation, add the following code to the isr.c. It should always be ensured, that the PWM_EN is handled correctly. I.e. if the UltraZohm transitions into its error-state e.g. because the OCP is triggered, it must be ensured, that the PWM_EN is retracted. Pay attention to this during your error handling.

Listing 42 Additions for isr.c in regards to the PWM_EN#
if (current_state == running_state || current_state == control_state) {
} else {
}


To read out the measured current and voltage signals both ethernet cables have to be connected to an ADC-Card. In the isr.c add the following conversion factors to the measured signals.

Listing 43 Additions for isr.c if the ADC-Card is in the A1 slot. For the A2/A3 slot adjust the code accordingly#
struct uz_3ph_abc_t v_abc_Volts = {0};
struct uz_3ph_abc_t i_abc_Amps = {0};
float v_DC_Volts = 0.0f;
float i_DC_Amps = 0.0f;


In order to use the over current and over temperature protection, the following code has to be added to the isr.c as well. These are optional features and can be left out if they aren’t required.

Listing 44 Additions for isr.c if OCP or OTP are used#
//Read out overtemperature signal (low-active) and disable PWM and set UltraZohm in error state
//Overtemperature for H1
if (!Global_Data.av.inverter_outputs_d1.FAULT_H1) {
ultrazohm_state_machine_set_error(true);
}
//Overtemperature for L1
if (!Global_Data.av.inverter_outputs_d1.FAULT_L1) {
ultrazohm_state_machine_set_error(true);
}
//Overtemperature for H2
if (!Global_Data.av.inverter_outputs_d1.FAULT_H2) {
ultrazohm_state_machine_set_error(true);
}
//Overtemperature for L2
if (!Global_Data.av.inverter_outputs_d1.FAULT_L2) {
ultrazohm_state_machine_set_error(true);
}
//Overtemperature for H3
if (!Global_Data.av.inverter_outputs_d1.FAULT_H3) {
ultrazohm_state_machine_set_error(true);
}
//Overtemperature for L3
if (!Global_Data.av.inverter_outputs_d1.FAULT_L3) {
ultrazohm_state_machine_set_error(true);
}
//Read out overcurrent signal (low-active) and disable PWM and set UltraZohm in error state
//Binding of the signals to the driver is slightly unintuitive
//Overcurrent for Phase A
if (!Global_Data.av.inverter_outputs_d1.OC_L1) {
ultrazohm_state_machine_set_error(true);
}
//Overcurrent for Phase B
if (!Global_Data.av.inverter_outputs_d1.OC_H1) {
ultrazohm_state_machine_set_error(true);
}
//Overcurrent for Phase C
if (!Global_Data.av.inverter_outputs_d1.OC_L2) {
ultrazohm_state_machine_set_error(true);
}
if (!Global_Data.av.inverter_outputs_d1.OC_H2) {
ultrazohm_state_machine_set_error(true);
}


### Known issues#

As of this moment, no issue in Rev03 is known.

### Designed by#

Dennis Hufnagel (THN)/Andreas Geiger, 02/2024

## Acknowledgments#

Special thank you for their support during the design and testing phase goes to Eyke Aufderheide (TUM), Michael Hoerner (THN) and Tobias Schindler (THN).